Updated: May 7
Cannabigerolic acid, or CBGA, is the acidic precursor to cannabigerol (CBG). CBGA is a special acidic precursor in the overall scheme of the phytocannabinoids. This is due to its role as a meta-acidic precursor and the fact that it produces the other major acidic precursors that then, in turn, synthesize the neutral ("active") versions of themselves.
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CBGA has been referred to as the "mother of all cannabinoids" because it yields three major cannabinoid acidic precursors:
Aannabichromenic Acid (CBCA): Produces its neutral isomer cannabichromene (CBC).
Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDA): Produces its neutral isomer cannabidiol (CBD).
Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid (THCA): Metabolizes into the neutral isomer tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
A 2019 study entitled "Identification and Characterization of Phytocannabinoids as Novel Dual PPARα/γ Agonists" that was published in the journal Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)—General Subjects analyzed the role of CBGA (as well as CBDA and CBG) in the modulation and control of metabolism, something of value to diseases such as diabetes and dyslipidemia (elevated lipid levels in the blood).
Concluded the preclinical study's authors, "Our work broadens the activity spectrum of CBDA, CBGA, and CBG by providing evidence that these pCBs act as dual PPARα/γ agonists with the ability to modulate lipid metabolism."
A 2018 study entitled "Identification of Synergistic Interaction Between Cannabis-Derived Compounds for Cytotoxic Activity in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines and Colon Polyps that Induces Apoptosis-Related Cell Death" that was published in the journal Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research investigated the therapeutic efficacy of CBGA for colon cancer.
Colorectal cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality globally and the third most common cancer diagnosis. The study revealed that cannabis extracts containing CBGA "had cytotoxic activity on colon cancer cells." The research also revealed some of the underlying mechanisms behind this efficacy, including apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
The study concluded that hemp compounds such as CBGA "interact synergistically for cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells and induce cell cycle arrest, apoptotic cell death, and distinct gene expression."
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